Tuesday, November 23, 2010

4 common types of political risks for International Markets operations


For multinational corporations, the meaning of political risk covers the potential threat that a host country will make political decisions, planned or sporadic, that will prove to have unfavorable effects on the corporation profits and goals, causing investors to lose some or all of the value of their invested assets. Undesirable political actions or events might be in wide range from completely disastrous, such as widespread destruction due to revolution or riots, to those of a more financial nature, such as creation of laws that prevent free movement of the capital (Investopedia, 2006).

The common types of political risks are as follows: systemic, procedural, distributive, and catastrophic political risks (Daniels, Radebaugh, & Sullivan, 2001). Let's review each type in more details.

Systemic Political Risks

Company investing in the international business sector, might be a subject of the inherited political risks initiated from substantial changes in the business policies of the host government. The regulations shifts might be directed to the general market structure, or it might be focused on the particular business sector, or even on a small operational niche. The possible reasons for the policies changes might be related to the new government establishment, shifts in the strategic views on the economic sector, or even personnel changes among top government officials, responsible for the country economic course.

Some of the systemic political risks sources might be even beyond the national government abilities to control and regulate economy, if they come from the global international business events and processes. Regional economic and financial crisis will eventually influence the economic outputs of the corporate division, located in the zone, affected by such an economic downturn.

Example: Enactment of capital and currency controls in Malaysia in 1998 was perceived absolutely negatively by international investors, causing capital to be withdrawn from the country. However, further currency stabilization, falling interest rates, and rising stock prices proved the point of the investors, who believed in the strengthening of country economy (Devadason).

Procedural Political Risk

Procedural risk reflects the potential cost and its deviation to perform the whole range of operational activities in the host country, including smooth movements of the final products, raw materials, finances, human resources, and any other components essential for successful business operations. Government and authorities' corruption, unsettled labor disputes, high level of bureaucracy, ineffective business decision-making, preferential treatment for certain businesses might lead to the low business efficiency and transaction costs increase.

Example: A former executive of Houston-based Global Engineering, Construction and Services Company, Albert Stanley, has pleaded guilty to bribing Nigerian officials in order to secure contracts to build liquefied natural gas facilities in the country. He claimed that the government officials insisted on the certain amount of kickback in exchange for the artificially delayed case approval (Ikokwu, 2008).

Distributive Political Risk

Any country, striving for the economic prosperity, is interested deeply in foreign investments in its economy. However, as foreign corporations are starting to get significant profits from its business ventures in the host country, local government might decide to reevaluate its guidelines on the fair wealth distribution between the foreign corporation and the local government needs. At this stage, national government might perform certain revision of their tax codes, regulatory structures, and monetary policy to capture greater benefits from foreign companies, decreasing the return on invested capital to the shareholders (Daniels, Radebaugh, & Sullivan, 2001).

Example: Following the reelection of President Hugo Chavez, and after announcing certain nationalization plans (mainly in telecommunications and electricity), the Venezuelan government has intensified its rhetoric against foreign oil and gas companies (Grenome & Socanos, 2007). The whole atmosphere of the foreign investment to the country, especially in the affected industries, strengthened the distributive political risk for all foreign corporations. Moody's Investors Service immediately changed the risk rating outlook to on the oil sector in the country to negative from stable (Hess & O'Shaughnessy, 2007).

Catastrophic Political Risk

Catastrophic political risk includes unanticipated political changes that largely affect all business operations in the country, but can be especially dangerous for local operations of the foreign companies. That includes military conflicts, racial and ethnic clashes, civil war, terrorism, etc. (Daniels, Radebaugh, & Sullivan, 2001).

Example: From 2002, Kenyan economy was considered as one of the most promising developments in Africa with annual growth of 2.8% in 2003, 4.3% in 2004, 5.8% in 2005, 6.1% in 2006, and 7.0% in 2007. However, the violence that broke out after the December 27, 2007 general election paralyzed the economy completely in January and early February 2008. And even now, while country shows some signs of recovery, events in the political arena still pose the greatest risk to the Kenyan economy (Makau, 2008).

References

Daniels, J.D., Radebaugh, L.H., & Sullivan, D.P. (2001). Globalization and Business. New York: Prentice Hall. Ch. 10, pp. 239-243.

Devadason, R. (n.d.). Investment Risk - Political Risk. Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://www.freecoolarticles.com/FP15.14.htm

Grenome, L., & Tsokanos, B. (2007, February 14). S&P: Ongoing political risk in Venezuela still poses challenges for foreign oil and gas companies. Retrieved September 8, 2008, from http://www.bnamericas.com/research_detalle.jsp?documento=79414&idioma=I

Hess, W.L., & O'Shaughnessy, J. (2007, February 13). Moody's changes outlook on Venezuelan heavy crude oil projects to negative. Retrieved September 8, 2008, from http://bnamericas.com/research_detalle.jsp?documento=79034&idioma=I

Ikokwu, C. (2008, September 5). Nigeria: LNG � American admits bribing Nigerian officials. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from http://allafrica.com/stories/200809050001.html

Investopedia (2006). What is political risk and what can a multinational company do to minimize exposure? Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/06/politicalrisk.asp

Makau, J. (2008, July 3). Kenya: Political risks and threat to economy. Retrieved September 8, 2008, from http://allafrica.com/stories/200807031022.html


28 comments:

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Col Rob Maness said...

Recommendable post. Thanks for sharing this podt on different political threats. Such an informative post.

Unknown said...

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Tanner said...

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anna lucas said...

Hello viewer’s
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he also cured HIV/AIDS,CANCER,GENITAL WART,COPD,BRAIN TUMOR

Jessica Morgan said...

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Elizabeth Matheus said...

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Amanda Bella said...

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Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

Mary Morgan said...

I Never believed i was ever going to be HSV FREE again, DR.Ehiaguna has given me reasons to be happy, i was HSV positive for 2 years and all the means and medicine i tried for treatment was not helpful to me, but when i came on the Internet i saw great testimony about DR.Ehiaguna on how he was able to cure someone from HSV 2, this person said great things about this man, and advice we contact him for any Disease problem that DR.Ehiaguna can be of help, well i decided to give him a try, he requested for my information which i sent to him, and he told me he was going to prepare for me a healing portion, which he wanted me to take for days, and after which i should go back to the hospital for check up, well after taking all the treatment sent to me by DR.Ehiahuna , i went back to the Hospital for check up, and now i have been confirmed HSV NEGATIVE, friends you can reach DR.Ehiaguna on any treatment of any Disease cos i saw many testimony of different disease like, HEPATITIS,HIV AIDS,EPILEPSY, CANCER,CFS he is the one only one i can show you all up to, reach him on drehiaguna@gmail.com or whatsApp him now +2348073908953. quick contact him for help and you can just quickly drop your number on your first mail as i did for easily conversation

Dana Lynn said...

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lisa said...

Good news this is to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Dr Emmanuel  a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine Dr Emmanuel sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 3 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested free from HSV. all thanks to God for leading me to Dr Emmanuel who was able to cure me completely from this deadly diseases, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr Emmanuel because I got to know him through elizabeth who he cured from HIV. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance or silent and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact Dr Emmanuel through his email traditionalherbalhealingcentre@gmail.com You can also whatsapp/call him on:+2348140033827 .He cure all forms of disease {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} BLOOD CANCER {5} HPV {6} BRAIN TUMOR {7} HEPATITIS {8}COPD{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA.etc Be kind enough to share as you received.       

Job Pedro said...

FINALLY FREE FROM HERPES VIRUSESI thought my life had nothing to offer anymore because life became meaningless to me because I had Herpes virus, the symptoms became very severe and bold and made my family run from and abandoned me so they won't get infected. I gave up everything, my hope, dreams,vision and job because the doctor told me there's no cure. I consumed so many drugs but they never cured me but hid the symptoms inside me making it worse. I was doing some research online someday when I Came across testimonies of some people of how DR Ebhota Cured them from Herpes, I never believed at first and thought it was a joke but later decided to contact him on the details provided and when I messaged him we talked and he sent me his herbal medicine and told me to go for a test after two weeks. Within 7 days of medication the symptoms disappeared and when I went for a test Lo and behold IT was negative by the Doctor Who tested me earlier. Thank you DR Ebhota because I forever owe you my life and I'll keep on telling the world about you. If you are going through the same situation worry no more and contact him via email  drebhotasolution@gmail. com or WhatsApp him via +2348089535482.he also special on curing 1. HIV/AIDS2. HERPES 3. CANCER 4.ALS 5. HEPATITIS B 6.DIABETES 7. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS DISEASE(HPV)8. ALZHEIMER 9. LUPUS (Lupus Vulgaris or Lupus Erythematosus

Success James said...


I am so Happy to be writing this article in here, i am here to explore blogs forum about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.I was positive to the Virus called HERPES and i lost hope completely because i was rejected even by my closet friends. i searched online to know and inquire about cure for HERPES and i saw testimony about DR Ebhota online on how he cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact the great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FEDEX or DHL and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i'm so happy! that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me! and if you need his help,contact his Email: (drebhotasoltion@gmail.com) You can contact him on WhatsApp +2348089535482 He also have the herb to cure difference cure for any sickness (1) HERPES,
(2) DIABETES,
(3) HIV&AIDS,
(4) URINARY TRACT INFECTION,
(5) HEPATITIS B,
(6) IMPOTENCE,
(7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
(8) DIARRHEA
(9) ASTHMA..

James Mac said...

Happiness is all I see now I never thought that I will be cured from HERPES virus again. I have been suffering from a deadly disease (HERPES) for the past 4 years now, I have spent a lot of money going from one place to another, from church to church, hospitals have been my home every day. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this fateful day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how DR Omongbe helped someone in curing his HERPES disease, quickly I copied his email which is dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com just to give him a test I spoke to him, he asked me to do some certain things which I did, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, then he asked me to go for medical checkup after some days after using the herbal cure, behold I was free from the deadly disease, he only asked me to post the testimony through the whole world, faithfully am doing it now, please brothers and sisters, he is great, I owe him in return. if you are having a similar problem just email him on ( dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com ) or you can whatsApp his mobile number on +2348050407265  Visit his website  https://dromongbenaturalre.wixsite.com/dromongbenaturalreme

Tarsha Michelle said...

Hello everybody, i don't just know the reason why some people is finding it difficult to believe that there is a cure for herpes, i have been suffering from herpes since last three years but today i am happy that am cure from it with the herbal medicine of Dr Omongbe the great healer,i was browsing the internet searching for help when i came across a testimony shared by someone on how Dr Omongbe cure his herpes i was so much in need of getting his treatment but after all Dr Omongbe brought a smile to my face with his herbal medicine. I am so happy today that we have someone like this great healer out there, so my people out there kindly visit this great healer on his website https://dromongbenaturalre.wixsite.com/dromongbenaturalreme  email address: dromongbenaturalremedies@gmail.com please sir keep your good work cause there are people out there who is in need of your healing medicine.once more contact him now you can call him or whatsApp his number  +2348050407265

cynthia williamas said...

HOW I GOT CURED FROM HPV WARTS Greetings to the general public, i want to tell about how i was cured of HPV disease by a Doctor called DR MOMOH i was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HPV and i saw comment of people talking about how DR MOMOH cured them. I Was scared because i never believed in the Internet but i was convince to give him a try because i having no hope of been cured of HPV so i decided to contact him with his email that was listed on the comment when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without problem, my HPV result came out negative. I pray for you God will give you everlasting life, you shall not die before your time for being a sincere and great man. Am so happy, you can also contact him if you have any problem Email: dr.momoh9@gmail.com website on: https://drmomohherbaltreatment.wordpress.com or whatsApp him on this number +2347083724098 1. LOVE SPELL 2. ALS CURE 3. HEPATITIS B 4. HIV/AIDS CURE 5. HERPES CURE 6 SPIRITUAL HEALERS

Ryan Lisa said...

My health was horrible before I decided to try the Protocol Of taking Dr. Omola pure herbal mixture. I felt there was no hope for my health and I was to try the Protocol, thinking it wouldn’t work because I have visited so many hospital but same result. However, I was convinced by a Instagram friend to try the herbal medicine because I wanted to get rid of Herpes virus. The herbal mixture that was given to me was really quick and easy to take, within 2 week I was fully cured from Herpes. The herbal medicine really work and I will like to share this great doctor contact with you all email him dr.omolaherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2348118116254 you won't regret it, I promise.
here is his website https://dromolaherbalhome.wordpress.com/

Ryan Lisa said...

My health was horrible before I decided to try the Protocol Of taking Dr. Omola pure herbal mixture. I felt there was no hope for my health and I was to try the Protocol, thinking it wouldn’t work because I have visited so many hospital but same result. However, I was convinced by a Instagram friend to try the herbal medicine because I wanted to get rid of Herpes virus. The herbal mixture that was given to me was really quick and easy to take, within 2 week I was fully cured from Herpes. The herbal medicine really work and I will like to share this great doctor contact with you all email him dr.omolaherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2348118116254 you won't regret it, I promise.
here is his website https://dromolaherbalhome.wordpress.com/

Margret Adanson said...

Big thanks to Dr. Iyabiye who treated/cure my brother of chronic HEPATITIS B and Cirrhosis. My brother was diagnosed of the disease last year and we tried several antiviral medications but they were all to no avail. At a point my brother developed swollen stomach and loss of appetite, I went online out of frustration for a new medication and I came across this doctor’s recommendation. I reached out to him and my brother was cured after the completion of the medicine and tested negative at the hospital. Dr. iyabiye’s contact: call/whatsapp: +234-815-857-7300 and email: iyabiyehealinghome@gmail.com

Rachelle Henley said...

I am so Happy to be writing this review here, i am here to explore blogs forum about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. I was tested positive to the deadly Virus, HERPES and i lost hope completely because i was rejected even by my closet friends. i searched online to know and inquire about cure for HERPES and i saw Dr Ojamo testimony online on how he has cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact this great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FED-EX and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i'm so happy! that i was cured. that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me and if you need his help contact his Email: dr.ojamoherbalhome@gmail.com you can also contact him on mobile number and via whats app +2349077406037


You can check on his website for more info https://drojamoherbalhome.wixsite.com/welcometodrojamoherb

Deborah Williams said...

I'm so Happy to write this article because I know it will help a lot of people who are suffering from Herpes. I am here to testify about the wonderful and most safe cure for herpes . I was positive to the deadly Virus called herpes and I lost hope completely because I was rejected even by my closest friends. I searched online to know and inquire about a cure for herpes and I saw testimony online on how Herbalist called Dr Osamu who cured so many people from Herpes virus and other similar diseases. I decided to contact the great herbalist because I know that nature has the power to heal everything. I contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural roots and herbs. After 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure is ready and he sent it to me via UPS and it got to me after 4 days. I used the medicine as he instructed (morning and evening ) and I got cured. it's really like a dream but I'm so happy that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me and if you need his help, contact him via Email: dr.osamuherbalremedy@gmail.com or WhatsApp:+2349012406016

Racheal Luis said...

Dr. Ehimare has really made me so much believe in him by getting me cured of Herpes with his herbal medicine. I have been a Herpes virus patient for some time now, I have been running here and there looking for help/cure but none could help. I ran into a testimony by someone who testified how she was cured of a terrible disease by Dr. Ehimare, so I decided to contact the herbal doctor. I explained to him, and he said he can cure me. We started the process and he prepared herbs and sent them to me in my country and gave me directions on how I am to use them. I followed his directions and now To God be the glory he could cure me with his herbal mixture. I really appreciate you Dr. Ehimare for bringing back happiness to my life again. thanks you so much friends that has join me to thank Dr. Ehimare for what he has actually done for me i pray to you all for a good life and property, his contact. Email address drehimare3@gmail.com , via whats-app +1 (267) 691-1087 Thanks Dr. Ehimare for your help in my life and family... and most especially to you Dr. THANKS. 

Terry Dixon said...

People actually believe there is no cure for herpes due to what our medical Doctor's do always say to us. But now i know that there is a cure for it Through herbal remedy' i and my boyfriend was once having herpes type 1&2 i contacted Dr. John for his herbal treatment and he prepared us some herbs which we takes for some couples of days, and we take it as he says before i am to known' i and my boyfriend was perfectly cure for it and never experience the Outbreaks again. please friends if you have herpes virus and you really want to get rid of it permanently, Kindly contact this great Dr. John Edualekhide for herbal treatment and you will get rid of it.. truly truly home remedies work perfectly well. He can also help you get rid of DIABETES, HIV/AIDS, CANCER, HPV, WEIGHT/HAIR LOSS and lot's more.
FOR HIS ASSISTANCE: Here is his Email: dredualekhide@gmail.com

WhatsApp/Call: +2349134774294

Website: https://dredualekhide.wixsite.com/website

David Mercy said...

I got Diagnosed with Herpes, I have be dealing with Herpes for the past 4 years. On till I got review online about natural cure people testifies how DR. Ehimare cure them with his herbal treatment. And I order the treatment, after taking it for 21 days I totally got cured with DR. Ehimare treatment. I'm recommending you diagnosis with herpes should get this treatment and be cured of it you can contact his email address via; drehimare3@gmail. com or you can also call or whatsapp +1 (267) 681-1087Dr. Ehimare also cure the following virus and many more... 1} Cancer 2} Diabetes 3} Hepatitis 4} fibroid 5} herpes 6} Lupus

Silva Tim said...

I've been treating herpes virus for several years with different medications until I saw a post on how a young lady got cured from herpes, Out of desperation I decided to contact him with little or no hope of a solution after taken his herbal medications reluctantly to my biggest surprise I tested negative, God bless you Dr ubarlo drubarlohome@gmail.com or Whatsapp +2348119508814 for his wonderful work

jennifer said...

I want to share my testimonies to the general
public on how this great man called Dr OLOKUN who cure my herpes. I have been a HERPES patient for over 9 Months and i have been in pains until i came across this lady when i traveled to Africa for business trip who happer and she told me that there is this great herbal doctor that help her tocure her herpes and she gave me his email address for me to contact and i did as she instructed. The man Dr OLOKUN told me how much to buy the
herpes herbal medication and how i will get it, which i did. And to my
greatest surprise that i took the Herpes herbal medicine for just two week as he
instructed and behold i went for a herpes test, to my greatest surprise for the
doctor confirmed me to be herpes free and said that i no longer have
herpes in my system and till now i have never felt any pains nor herpes again, so i
said i must testify the goodness of this man to the general public. So if
you are there surfing from this Herpes problems or any deadly disease or
other disease for i will advice you to contact him on his working
email: drolokuntemple@gmail.com OR on his cell phone +2348132537313 whatsapp number
+2348132537313